resistente; CIM, concentración inhibitoria mínima. Tabla 1. Métodos para el estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Es necesario señalar. La terapia por encima de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM). Curvas de muerte bacteriana y efectos persistentes de los antibacterianos. concentración de sal, pH y temperatura afectan .. Concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de aceites esenciales probados “in .. ages/files_pdf/brasil/

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Se realizó la prueba de E- test® para establecer la concentración inhibitoria mínima a tetraciclina, ciprofloxacina, amoxicilina, metronidazol, azitromicina y. PDF | On Jan 1, , D Domingo and others published Plantas con acción antimicrobiana. Content be subject to copyright. Download full-text PDF. Contra cada . concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias (CMI) altas ( mg/l ) en. PDF | Se estima que un tercio de la población mundial esta infectada por Mycobacterium Determinación de la Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria de Aceites Esenciales frente a Cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Data (PDF Download.

This could be attributed to by Espina et al.

MBC determined in liquid medium Nannapaneni et al. This will depend on 2. The MIC for these two oils ranged from 1. In the strain tested.

However, the values varied activity due to a synergic effect that potentiates biological activ- very little between the folded orange oils for the same ity. This could be attributed to the Tabla 3. In addition, other minority Oil B.

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Tabla 4. Microorganisms B.


Table 5. This could be Tabla 5. ND: No detectado. These results agree with Choi et al. However, there are no studies individual compounds. According to Liu et al. The values obtained by ABTS method were synergistic action among compounds that derive in higher In that case, the folded between 3.

In the case of AN, it showed stuffs. Therefore, presently no risk to human health, including values of Meticulous studies of respectively.

Finally, in LN, activity for any of the two methods toxicology support the safety of the substance for its intended was not detected. The LN focus on strategic applications of these compounds, consid- did not present antioxidant activity for inhibiting the radicals ering their efficiency in antimicrobial and antioxidant activ- studied. The results showed significant differences in antioxidant ities Choi et al.

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The food- have determined their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The results of this research may provide Tabla 6. Finally, the study of DPPH Zhou, Z.

Journal of Agricultural and the technical information provided. Food Chemistry, 62, — Antibacterial activity of some essential oil components against five foodborne pathogens. Journal Disclosure statement of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, — Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

Journal of Microbiological Methods, 81, — Funding doi Journal of Food Science, 77, C—C Journal of Essential A. Photothermal charac- S. Thermochimica C.

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Campylobacter and Arcobacter species sensitivity to commercial orange oil fractions. International Journal of Food References Microbiology, , 43— Essential oil Beneti, S. Fractionation of citronella Cymbopogon winterianus Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 20, 80— Orange distillation.

These bacteria are common commensals, which are considered to constitute a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes, which may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria causing disease in animals or humans The isolates included in this study were collected from to A number of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.

Samples were inoculated onto selective and differential media according to the bacterial genus The Enterococcus species were identified on the basis of yellow pigment production, motility, deamination of arginine, utilization of pyruvate and carbohydrate fermentation of arabinose, sorbose, ribose, raffinose, sucrose and mannitol6.

The agar dilution susceptibility test was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration MIC 2 of different antimicrobials. For E. For Enterococcus spp. Table 2 shows the Enterococcus species and number of isolates among pigs, cattle, sheep, layer hens, horses and dogs.

Table 3 shows the MIC distribution for Enterococcus spp. The mass spectrum of the fungal extracts suggested the presence of two or three different compounds, as well as in the HPLC chromatograms. No signals were observed in the range of 2,—10, Da, therefore, those mass spectra were not included in this article. Mass spectra obtained from A synthetic and human melanin, B C. Discussion In this study, the antifungal activity of melanins from different biological origins was tested.

To date, this is the first study to correlate the variation of the antifungal activity with the physicochemical characteristics of melanins. It has been previously described that the efficiency of the melanin extraction from different biological origins is low due to factors associated with the molecule and the source Ito and Wakamatsu, In the present work, a sample of human hair from a healthy volunteer was used as a source of human melanin. In this case, the melanin extraction efficiency reached to 3.

In the current study, human and synthetic melanin showed an important inhibitory activity against all tested Cryptococcus strains Figure 2 and Table 1. In addition, this antifungal activity against the clinical isolates, obtained from patients, was higher than the reference strains Figure 3.

In previous work Tapia et al. Therefore, these results support the idea that human melanin can represent a mechanism of antimicrobial defense against fungi. Similar to our preceding results obtained against Candida species Fuentes et al. Although that Candida sp and Cryptococcus sp are two distinct microorganisms, this data suggests that Candida species would be more sensitive to synthetic melanin than Cryptococcus species.

Similarly, to synthetic melanin, the MICs obtained with the human melanin were slightly lower in C. The antifungal activity of melanin extracted from Cryptococcus strains was significantly lower than those extracted from human and synthetic melanins. Human melanin showed an activity 14 times higher than the cryptococcal melanins. In addition to strain dependent effect, these results show that the antifungal activity of melanin is also dependent on the originating organism.

In the current study, we tested the antifungal activity of fungal melanin extracts against the fungal species where they had been extracted from, showing that the activity was lower against strains of their own species.

This should be subject to further studies. The physicochemical characterization of extracts revealed that melanin was the main component in all the analyzed extracts.

Although nitrogen is also present in the melanin structure, the proportion of N atoms in the melanin molecule is relatively low with respect to the other majority elements.

The detection limit of EDX technique is 0. In addition, the FITR spectrum of fungal melanin extracts were similar to synthetic melanin and in turn, similar to melanin analyzed in previous studies Figure 5 Morzyk-Ociepa, ; Helan et al. The chromatograms of the melanin extracts obtained by HPLC showed a profile with a single signal with the synthetic melanin Figure 6. These results are consistent with previous studies Sun et al. In effect the HPLC patterns of human and fungal melanins were similar to the synthetic melanin obtained through the oxidation of tyrosine, which means that both human and fungal melanins contain eumelanin as their principal element, with a similar structure to the melanin standard synthetic melanin.

Collectively these results obtained using several methods confirm that the herein studied extracts were formed of melanin. Human and fungal melanin both present different antifungal activity and morphological differences, suggesting that antifungal activity may be correlated with the structure of the melanins.

However, we could not associate the morphological differences between human and fungal melanin with their antifungal activity. Similarly, to previous studies Liu et al. This structural form may increase the antifungal activity to the melanin in contrast to the form of fungal melanin extracts. However, the structural form of the fungal melanins was similar to the synthetic melanin, which showed a similar antifungal activity as the human melanin.

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In this context, it is difficult to link the amorphous or compact disposition of the human melanin with its antifungal activity. Thus the differential antifungal activities between melanins from different sources might be due to chemical characteristics. The HPLC and FTIR analysis showed that the melanin extracted from Cryptococcus species displayed physicochemical differences and similarities in comparison with the synthetic or human melanin.

In the chromatograms obtained by HPLC, a mains and single peak was observed for the synthetic melanin with a retention time Rt of 9. On the other hand, fungal melanin extracts showed also a main compound eluted in a range from 9.

Effect of peritoneal fluid pH on outcome of aminoglycoside treatment of intraabdominal infections

It suggested that the different fungal melanin extracts could contain more than one melanin species or derivatives. Some of them are related closely to the synthetic melanin and some of them differ slightly in the retention time in comparison with synthetic melanin.

This is supported by the analysis through MALDI-TOF-MS, due to the presence of an abundant ion Da , representing the main compound in the samples, followed by a less intense ion Da and a differential very low intense ion Da , which was not observed in all mass spectrum Figure 7.

However, the presence of this low intense ion was not associated with a higher or lower antifungal activity. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis also revealed that fungal melanin presents differences with respect to human melanin in the zone of the aromatic ring. Interestingly the melanin spectrum of C. Similarly, this melanin from C. Other studies of FTIR in melanin have obtained more detailed spectra with signals in , , , , , , , and cm-1 Alaluf et al.

The differences obtained through previous studies could be related to the origin of the melanin obtained, the initial substrate used for the melanization, the methods of extraction and purification and even the FTIR equipment utilized. Although the usual enzymatic method was reported to be more efficient Liu et al. Nevertheless, this discrepancy with other studies supports that structural differences exist between the melanins synthetized by different organisms that can affect their function.

However, the analysis of more fungal melanins may allow observing a correlation. Conclusion In summary, we confirm the potential protective role of human melanin, especially in the innate immunity against fungi and its differential activity compared to cryptococcal melanins.

Melanins extracted from the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species showed a lower fungal activity against their own genus.

Although some physical-chemical differences were found, they do not explain the differences in the antifungal activity against Cryptococcus of human and cryptococcal melanins.There was a 26 Dodecanal 0.

According to some reports Espina et al. The same tendency was observed oxygenated compounds, primarily aldehydes and alcohols for hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, in which an increase was are increased Lopes et al.

Fungal Melanin Eight strains genetically characterized were used; four C. The pathogenicity of Cryptococcus species has been attributed in part to the synthesis of melanin Wang et al. Journal Disclosure statement of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, — In that case, the folded between 3. Both C. Our results showed the same tendency with 3. The equipment was operated in a batch mode.