Química: A Ciência Central, 9ª ed () [REGULADO] + respostas. byTheodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay Jr., Bruce E. Bursten. Publication. Quimica La ciencia central en Español. byTheodore L. Brown. Publication date Identifierquc3admica-la-ciencia-central-brown_ Sorry, this document isn't available for viewing at this time. In the meantime, you can download the document by clicking the 'Download' button above.

Quimica Central Brown Pdf

Language:English, French, Arabic
Genre:Health & Fitness
Published (Last):22.10.2015
ePub File Size:20.64 MB
PDF File Size:20.68 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Registration needed]
Uploaded by: STEVE

Download Solucionario Química la Ciencia Central - 9na Edición - fruchbabefonbei.tk Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Esdras Sanchez Perez. Solucionario Química La Ciencia Central 11va Edicion Theodore fruchbabefonbei.tk Uploaded by. Miguel Gomez. LIBRO DE QUIMICA.

The properties of a compound bear little similarity to those of its elements.

Organic compounds are named according to the organic nomenclature system. When a compound has more than one component, then they are divided into two classes, the electropositive and the electronegative components. In this scheme each chemical substance is identifiable by a number known as its CAS registry number. A molecule is the smallest indivisible portion of a pure chemical substance that has its unique set of chemical properties, that is, its potential to undergo a certain set of chemical reactions with other substances.

However, this definition only works well for substances that are composed of molecules, which is not true of many substances see below. Molecules are typically a set of atoms bound together by covalent bonds , such that the structure is electrically neutral and all valence electrons are paired with other electrons either in bonds or in lone pairs.


Thus, molecules exist as electrically neutral units, unlike ions. When this rule is broken, giving the "molecule" a charge, the result is sometimes named a molecular ion or a polyatomic ion. However, the discrete and separate nature of the molecular concept usually requires that molecular ions be present only in well-separated form, such as a directed beam in a vacuum in a mass spectrometer. Charged polyatomic collections residing in solids for example, common sulfate or nitrate ions are generally not considered "molecules" in chemistry.

Some molecules contain one or more unpaired electrons, creating radicals. Most radicals are comparatively reactive, but some, such as nitric oxide NO can be stable. A 2-D skeletal model of a benzene molecule C6H6 The "inert" or noble gas elements helium , neon , argon , krypton , xenon and radon are composed of lone atoms as their smallest discrete unit, but the other isolated chemical elements consist of either molecules or networks of atoms bonded to each other in some way.

Quimica La Ciencia Central (Hispan)

Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline, and the various pharmaceuticals. However, not all substances or chemical compounds consist of discrete molecules, and indeed most of the solid substances that make up the solid crust, mantle, and core of the Earth are chemical compounds without molecules.

These other types of substances, such as ionic compounds and network solids , are organized in such a way as to lack the existence of identifiable molecules per se. Instead, these substances are discussed in terms of formula units or unit cells as the smallest repeating structure within the substance.

Examples of such substances are mineral salts such as table salt , solids like carbon and diamond, metals, and familiar silica and silicate minerals such as quartz and granite.

One of the main characteristics of a molecule is its geometry often called its structure. While the structure of diatomic, triatomic or tetra-atomic molecules may be trivial, linear, angular pyramidal etc. Substance and mixture Examples of pure chemical substances.

From left to right: the elements tin Sn and sulfur S , diamond an allotrope of carbon , sucrose pure sugar , and sodium chloride salt and sodium bicarbonate baking soda , which are both ionic compounds. A chemical substance is a kind of matter with a definite composition and set of properties. Examples of mixtures are air and alloys.

The mole is defined as the number of atoms found in exactly 0. For the most part, the chemical classifications are independent of these bulk phase classifications; however, some more exotic phases are incompatible with certain chemical properties. A phase is a set of states of a chemical system that have similar bulk structural properties, over a range of conditions, such as pressure or temperature. Physical properties, such as density and refractive index tend to fall within values characteristic of the phase.

The phase of matter is defined by the phase transition , which is when energy put into or taken out of the system goes into rearranging the structure of the system, instead of changing the bulk conditions.

Sometimes the distinction between phases can be continuous instead of having a discrete boundary' in this case the matter is considered to be in a supercritical state. When three states meet based on the conditions, it is known as a triple point and since this is invariant, it is a convenient way to define a set of conditions.

The most familiar examples of phases are solids , liquids , and gases. Many substances exhibit multiple solid phases.

For example, there are three phases of solid iron alpha, gamma, and delta that vary based on temperature and pressure. A principal difference between solid phases is the crystal structure , or arrangement, of the atoms. Another phase commonly encountered in the study of chemistry is the aqueous phase, which is the state of substances dissolved in aqueous solution that is, in water. Less familiar phases include plasmas , Bose—Einstein condensates and fermionic condensates and the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials.

While most familiar phases deal with three-dimensional systems, it is also possible to define analogs in two-dimensional systems, which has received attention for its relevance to systems in biology.

Bonding Main article: Chemical bond An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium Na and chlorine Cl to form sodium chloride , or common table salt. Ionic bonding involves one atom taking valence electrons from another as opposed to sharing, which occurs in covalent bonding Atoms sticking together in molecules or crystals are said to be bonded with one another.

A chemical bond may be visualized as the multipole balance between the positive charges in the nuclei and the negative charges oscillating about them. A chemical bond can be a covalent bond , an ionic bond , a hydrogen bond or just because of Van der Waals force. Each of these kinds of bonds is ascribed to some potential. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals.


In many simple compounds, valence bond theory , the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model VSEPR , and the concept of oxidation number can be used to explain molecular structure and composition.

Throughout this text you will see molecules represented using colored spheres to show how their component atoms connect to each other Figure 1. The color merely provides a convenient way to distinguish between the atoms of different elements.

Molecules of ethanol and ethylene glycol, which are depicted in Figure 1. Ethanol contains one red sphere, which represents an oxygen atom, whereas ethylene glycol contains two.

Even apparently minor differences in the composition or structure of molecules can cause profound differences in their properties, Ethanol, also called grain alcohol, is the alcohol in beverages such as beer and wine.

Ethylene glycol, on the other hand, is a viscous liquid used as automobile antifreeze. Figure 1. The white, dark gray, and red spheres represent atoms of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen, respectively. We make our observations in the macroscopic world with our everyday sensesin the laboratory and in our surroundings. In order to understand that world, however, we must visualize how atoms behave.

Chemistry provides important understanding of our world and how it works. It is an extremely practical science that greatly impacts our daily living. Indeed, chemistry lies near the heart of many matters of public concern: improvement of health care, conservation of natural resources, protection of the environment, and provision of our everyday needs for food, clothing, and shelter.

Using chemistry, we have discovered pharmaceutical chemicals tha t enhance our health and prolong our lives. We have increased food production through the development of fertilizers and pesticides. We have developed plastics and other materials that are used in almost every facet of our lives, Unfortunately, some chemicals also have the potential to harm our health or the environment. It is in our best interest as educated citizens and consumers to understand the profound effects, both positive and negative, that chemicals have on our lives and to strike an informed balance about their uses.

[Brown] Química A ciência central - cap 9.PDF

Most of you are studying chemistry, however, not merely to satisfy your curiosity or to become more informed consumers or citizens, but because it is an essential part of your curriculum.

Your major might be biology, engineering, agriculture, geology, or some other field. Why do so many diverse subjects share an essential tie to chemistry? The answer is that chemistry, by its very nature, is the centra; sciellce. Our interactions wi th the material world raise basic questions about the materials around us. What are their compositions and properties? How do they interact with us and our environment? How, why, and when do they undergo change?How, why, and when do they undergo change?

Atoms that tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shell are said to follow the octet rule. The speed of a chemical reaction at given temperature T is related to the activation energy E, by the Boltzmann's population factor e.

Eugene LeMay, Bruce E. These potentials create the interactions which hold atoms together in molecules or crystals. Each element is composed of a unique kind of atom.