Alberuni's India Volume II PDF Language: English Author: Dr Edward C. Sachau . If any of the above links are not working, please let us know. LanguageEnglish. Alberuni's India,Geography. IdentifierAlberunisIndia. Identifier- arkark://t9x09zt2c. OcrABBYY FineReader Ppi Alberuni's India (v. 1). Bīrūnī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad. Alberuni's India. — An English ed., — London: Kegan Read this book. View this book. Download PDF .

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ALBERUNI'S INDIA. lunar months is represented by these supernumerary months, by which a single year is extended to thirteen months. These, therefore, are. Cambridge Core - Asian Studies - Alberuni's India - by Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Bīrūnī. Alberuni's India. An Account of the . Access. PDF; Export citation. Alberuni's India [Dr. Edward C. Sachau] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. It was in AD, at the behest of Sultan Muhmud of Persia.

Timeline of Delhi Sultanate 6. Religion: Alberuni says that the Hindus of the rural regions worshipped many gods and goddesses. But the educated Hindus considered God as "Permanent, beyond beginning and end, all powerful, omnipresent and Omniscient All-consciousness, Giver of life and Nourisher, working at His will.

Judiciary System: Describing the functions of Judiciary, he writes that for getting justice, it was necessary to write applications in which the points against the accused were mentioned.

There were arrangements for oral justice. Justice depended upon the witnesses.

Alberuni's India

Before conducting witnesses, it was necessary to take oath. Rule of law: Punishment was in accordance with Hindu traditions and softer elements based on morality. Justice was not equally awarded to all people. It was different for different castes.

The Brahmans were exempted from death-sentence. If a Brahman murdered someone, he was required to repent through fasts, prayers and charity. The punishment for theft depended on the nature of big or small theft.

Revenue System: The king charged —6 of the produce as revenue and charged many other taxes. The Brahmans were exempted from the burden of paying taxes. Idol worship prevailed. Cults and Culture: The custom of Sati was in vogue and there was negation of widow remarriage.

According to the Alberuni, people of Indian sub-continent were excellent philosophers, good mathematicians and astronomers. He criticised the hypocrisy of Brahmins Scholars because despite of explaining the scientific values of ancient text preferred to mislead the masses and keep them steeped in ignorance and superstitious. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban.

Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm.

Their court at Gorganj also in Khwarezm was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists.

In , Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. He was forty-four years old when he went on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni.

He may even have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. His endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology [26] as 'sorcery'.

In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible.

Alberuni’s India Volume I & II

This question is most difficult to solve. The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a Key to Astronomy , in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter.

He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina , in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics : he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist; [29] he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum; [30] he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres; [31] and so on.

In his major extant astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni utilizes his observational data to disprove Ptolemy's immobile solar apogee. He drew many different depictions of various instruments that are considered to be the precursors of more modern objects such as clocks and the astrolabe, in which other scientists were able to use to complete these inventions in the coming years.

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Physics[ edit ] "Al-Biruni contributed to the introduction of the experimental scientific method to mechanics , unified statics and dynamics into the science of mechanics, [36] [37] and combined the fields of hydrostatics with dynamics to create hydrodynamics. Along with those methods, Biruni went so far as to describe instruments that go along with each of those areas as well.

Although he never entirely focuses just on physics in any of his books, the study of physics is present throughout many of his various works. Biruni also came up with different hypotheses about heat and light.

The result of his discovery of radius measurement was due to Biruni's arduous research about the earth. He deduced its existence on the basis of his accurate estimations of the Earth's circumference and Afro-Eurasia 's size, which he found spanned only two-fifths of the Earth's circumference, and his discovery of the concept of specific gravity , from which he deduced that the geological processes that gave rise to Eurasia must've also given rise to lands in the vast ocean between Asia and Europe.


He also theorized that the landmass must be inhabited by human beings, which he deduced from his knowledge of humans inhabiting the broad north-south band stretching from Russia to South India and Sub-Saharan Africa , theorizing that the landmass would most likely lie along the same band.

He elaborated upon the fact that the earth was created from the elements and not solely through divine creation. Even though Islam did influence his study, he did acknowledge the role of the elements.

He treated religions objectively, striving to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs.

He describes the educated as monotheistic, believing that God is one, eternal, and omnipotent and eschewing all forms of idol worship. He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshiped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims such as the Jabiriyya have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God.

Alberuni's India

According to Akbar S. Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons.

Akhbar S. Ahmed concluded that Al-Biruni can be considered as the first Anthropologist, [47] however, others argue that he hardly can be considered an anthropologist in the conventional sense.Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek, ms.

Hidden categories: His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. Tanlangan asarlar 2. Arabic manuscripts: Leiden, Or.

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Field e. If you know of any books on Indian history that have not been listed here, please write about them in the comments section below. Download the whole manuscript in one file pdf or only the first part 59 pages archive.